It is best not to make assumptions about what pupils know, so we will start with some very basic concepts. Feel free to continue if you are quite sure of these ideas!
A noun is a naming word and will be either masculine or feminine in French. Masculine nouns will have "un" or "le" before them, while feminine nouns will have "une" or "la" before them.
A verb is a "doing" word and it may be regular or irregular. A regular verb is a verb which follows a pattern or a set of rules, while an irregular verb is one which goes its own way and has to be learned separately.
An adjective is a "describing" word. It will give you information about a noun – whether something is big, small, lovely or lousy!
An adverb is also a "describing" word, but it describes verbs and tells you how something is done – whether it is done slowly, well or brilliantly (these words often end in "ly" in English).